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Immigration

Wednesday, May 30, 2018

Studying in the United States

The United States boasts some of the most prestigious academic institutions in the world and for many international scholars, it’s the dream of a lifetime to come study at one of them. Unfortunately, acceptance into a school isn’t enough to allow a nonimmigrant to commence studies in the U.S., they also must obtain the appropriate visa. Generally speaking, there are two different types of visas available to students: the F-1 visa and M-1 visa. The desired course of study and the type of school determines which will be needed. An F-1 visa is required to attend university or college, high school, private elementary school, seminary, conservatory or another academic institution (including a language training program). While an M-1 visa is generally required for study at a vocational or other recognized nonacademic institution.


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Friday, March 30, 2018

Returning to the United States after Deportation

Each year, hundreds of thousands of individuals are deported from the United States. For many of these people the dream of living and working in the U.S. is far from over. Unfortunately after deportation, the path to reenter and live in the U.S. is incredibly difficult. Depending on the reason for removal and number of violations, a deported individual may have to wait several years before reentry or they may be permanently banned from ever returning to the United States.


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Monday, February 12, 2018

How to Get A Provisional Unlawful Presence Waiver


Under current law, many immigrants are required to travel abroad and apply for an immigrant visa from their home country before they can return and become lawful permanent residents of the U.S.  Immigrants in the United States illegally, however, may be barred from returning to the United States for either three years or ten years under Section 212(a)(9)(B) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.  

To avoid this bar, these foreign nationals must obtain a waiver of their unlawful presence when applying for an immigrant visa.  Seeking a waiver can lead to a Catch-22, however—leaving the U.
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Sunday, January 7, 2018

Should Employers Enroll in E-Verify? Pros and Cons

The U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, in partnership with the Social Security Administration (SSA), offers E-Verify to help employers instantly determine an employee's eligibility to work.  Initial confirmations and "Tentative Non Confirmations" are available in as little as three to five seconds.

The voluntary Internet-based program works by comparing the information from an employee’s Form I-9, Employment Eligibility Verification, with Department of Homeland Security and Social Security Administration records.  Instead of simply retaining I-9s on file in their own offices, employers who enroll in E-Verify must enter the I-9s of all new hires into the program's database.

There are both advantages and disadvantages to using E-Verify.  Employers must weigh each and its relevance to their circumstances.

Five Benefits of Signing Up for E-Verify

 • While E-Verify is generally voluntary, some states require employers to use E-Verify, and it is mandatory for some federal government contracts.

 • E-Verify could become mandatory nationwide.  Adopting it earlier affords employers more time to become familiar with it and adapt.

 • E-Verify helps companies avoid hiring and training a person who turns out to be ineligible to work.  It can eliminate "No Match" letters from the SSA notifying an employer that an employee's reported social security number does not match government records.

• If an employer hires foreign nationals who recently received a degree in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics, enrolling in E-Verify may make those workers eligible to work an additional 17 months without the employer having to file H-1B petitions on their behalf

•Although using E-Verify does not provide a "safe harbor" from prosecution, it creates a "rebuttable presumption" that the employer has not violated section 274A(a)(1)(A) of the Immigration and Nationality Act ("Unlawful Employment of Aliens").

Five Drawbacks of Signing Up for E-Verify

 • E-Verify is not entirely free.  Employers must allot time and resources to training and supervising staff to use the system and deal with the results of queries.  

 • E-Verify makes mistakes, issuing Tentative or Final Non-Confirmations for workers who are authorized to work, or stating “Employment Authorized” for workers who are not.

 • Tentative Non-Confirmations open employers up to new legal risks.  For example, employees have sued employers for discrimination for not providing proper notice and instructions for contesting a Tentative Non-Confirmation.

 • E-Verify can lead to liability for privacy and discrimination violations.  Federal and state laws require the safeguarding of I-9 information.  Employers must make sure that their staff does not intentionally or accidentally misuse E-Verify data.

 • Because the government can use E-Verify to mine data, it may find employers' hiring mistakes that otherwise would not have been discovered.  For example, employers enrolled in E-Verify must complete and submit I-9 forms by the third business day after a new hire's first day of work.  Consistently missing this deadline could trigger an I-9 inspection and fine.  Employers who are not submitting I-9s to E-Verify might never be caught in a slight delay in completing them.

 If you have encountered any of these issues in your past or current use of the E-Verify system, you would be best served by discussing the problems with an immigration law attorney as soon as possible.


Thursday, November 23, 2017

Form I-9 Inspections

The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) requires employers to verify the identity of their employees and their eligibility to work in the U.S.  To comply, employers must retain original I-9 Forms for current employees and, for former employees, keep them for at least three years.  These need not be submitted to the government but must be available for inspection.  From time to time, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) ask to inspect the forms. 


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Monday, October 16, 2017

Master Calendar Hearings

The first stage in the removal (deportation) of a foreign national is a Notice to Appear (NTA) at a Master Calendar Hearing.  The purpose of the hearing is not to reach a final decision on removal, but to obtain basic information about the case and create a schedule for it to proceed.  It also is an opportunity for the court to outline all of the legal rights available to the foreign national, including the right to answer charges, present evidence, examine witnesses and, if the respondent lacks counsel, make use of any free or low-cost legal service providers who may be available.

The Notice to Appear contains the date, time and location of the hearing, usually at least ten days later.  A fo

reign national (the "respondent") who receives a notice must attend in person, with or without an attorney.  Failure to attend, or even showing up late, can result in denial of an application and deportation "in absentia."  The respondent should bring the Notice to Appear and any official identification documents.  Family members can attend.

The Notice to Appear also contains allegations about the respondent's illegal status in the United States.  The respondent, with the help of an attorney if possible, should examine these allegations carefully and be prepared to deny them and correct any inaccuracies.

The Master Calendar Hearing itself is brief, though it may take hours for a case to be called.  When the respondent's name and Alien Registration Number are announced, the respondent and counsel, if any, appear before an Immigration Court Judge.  The court will generally provide an interpreter, if needed.

The judge may ask for basic information, such as name, address, and the languages the respondent speaks.  The judge then reviews the charges.  The respondent can deny some or all of the government's allegations and point out any factual errors regarding names, dates, places, or other details.  The respondent can designate—or refuse to designate— a "country of removal," i.e. where to be sent if deported.

The respondent can also state the basis of a claim for relief from removal from the United States.  These may include:

  • Asylum based on persecution in the immigrant's home country. 
  • Marriage to a US citizen.
  • Cancellation of removal for qualifying lawful permanent and non-permanent residents.
  • Adjustment of status from non-immigrant to a lawful permanent resident.
  • Voluntary departure.

At the conclusion of the hearing, the judge gives the respondent a deadline for submitting further applications or documents.  The judge may schedule another Master Calendar hearing for the case, or set a date for an individual hearing on the merits.  The respondent may ask for more time to retain an attorney, submit documents, or prepare for the next hearing.

If you have been notified that you will be subject to a Master Calendar hearing and are at risk of deportation it is imperative to hire an experienced immigration law attorney to protect your rights.


Monday, October 2, 2017

FDNS Administrative Site Visits/ Business Law

In 2009, the Fraud Detection and National Security Directorate (FDNS) of the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) launched a program to ensure that employers comply with immigration rules designed to protect public safety and national security.  Under the Administrative Site Visit and Verification Program (ASVVP), FDNS makes surprise site inspections to verify the information that employers provide to the government.


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Wednesday, September 6, 2017

Top Five Reasons for Filing Personal Bankruptcy

Although the number of personal bankruptcy filings in the U.S. has declined, many individuals continue to face insurmountable debt. Let's take a look at some of the reasons that lead people to file for bankruptcy.

Medical Expenses

A number studies demonstrate that medical expenses account for more than 60 percent of personal bankruptcies.  Catastrophic illnesses and injuries often result in hundreds of thousands of dollars in medical bills that can easily deplete savings and other sources of funds.  Once these funds have been exhausted, personal bankruptcy may be the only alternative.


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Wednesday, August 30, 2017

Refugees & Asylum

Some immigrants to the U.S. are classified as “refugees” or granted asylum. Refugee status or asylum is granted to people who have been persecuted or are afraid they may be persecuted because of their political opinion, race, religion, nationality or membership in a particular social group.


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Monday, June 26, 2017

Obtaining U.S. Citizenship Through a Grandparent

The Immigration and Naturalization Act provides that children born outside the U.S. are automatically U.S. Citizens if one of their parents is a U.S. citizen.  There are, however, a number of exceptions.  

To transmit citizenship to a child, the parent must not only be a U.S. citizen but must also meet a physical presence requirement.  The parent must have resided in the U.S. or one of its possessions for at least five years, and for two of the five, the parent must have been at least 14 years old.

If a child is not eligible because a U.S. citizen parent failed to meet the physical presence requirement, the child can still receive citizenship through the physical presence of a grandparent.  There are three basic requirements:

1.  The child is the offspring of parent who is a U.S. citizen, whether by naturalization or birth.

2.  The child is under the age of 18 and in the custody of the U.S. citizen parent.

3.  The child's U.S. citizen grandparent was physically present in the U.S. or its possessions for at least five years, for two of which the grandparent was at least 14 years old.

As with the U.S. citizen parent, the calculation of the total time of physical presence can include periods when the grandparent was not a U.S. citizen.

If the grandparent is dead, the provision is still available.  All that is required is that the grandparent was a U.S. citizen and met the physical presence requirements at the time of his or her death.

Parents seeking to use the grandparent provision for a child must file a form N-600K with the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services prior to the child's eighteenth birthday and attend an appointment in person with the child.  If the parent has died, the child's grandparent or legal guardian can apply within five years of the parent's death.

If you or your loved one is trying to obtain U.S. citizenship through a grandparent, you should seek the advice of a seasoned immigration attorney to achieve the best possible result.


Monday, April 24, 2017

Immigration Bonds

Non-citizens believed to be in the country illegally can be taken into custody and held by the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) branch. Just like in the criminal law system, detainees may be given the option to post a bond and be released from detention while they await judgment.

A bond is a monetary promise that the detainee will comply with the government’s demands and show up when required if they are released from custody. A bond is not a fine; it does not put an end to the issue at hand, it merely allows the detainee to live at home rather than in government custody while his or her case is processed.

Whether a bond is available and how much it will be depends on several factors. The minimum amount ICE can set for a bond is $1,500, but it can be set at a much higher rate as well. ICE will take into consideration the length of time the detainee has lived in the United States, whether he or she has family in the United States, the detainee’s employment history and criminal record, and whether the detainee has any past immigration law violations. There is no way to predict exactly what amount ICE will set a bond at, but an experienced attorney can provide a likely range.

If the detainee thinks his or her bond is too high, he or she can appeal ICE’s decision to a judge. Once the bond is finalized, it can only be challenged if the detainee’s circumstances change. For example, if the detainee has a criminal charge pending when bond is set that is later dismissed, the detainee can ask that bond be lowered.

While it is the detainee that might be challenging the bond amount, the detainee is not usually the one paying the bond. Immigration bonds must be paid by someone who is in the country legally. This can be a relative, friend or professional bondsman; it doesn’t matter as long as the person can prove he or she is in the country legally and can provide the government with a cashier’s check in the bond amount.

If all the government’s conditions are met, the bond money is returned to the lender at the close of the case. It does not matter if the detainee wins the case and gets to stay in the United States or loses and is deported; if the detainee always appeared when required by ICE, the bond money is returned.

If you or your loved one is involved in an immigration matter requiring a bond, contact an experienced attorney today.


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